Lead Paint Background

Cameroon Lead Paint Investigation

OK International, along with our partners at the Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), completed an investigation on lead paint being sold in Cameroon. The report “Lead Concentrations in New Residential Paints in Cameroon” found that 67% of new paints tested contained lead above the U.S. regulatory level of 90 ppm. Only two products of approximately 300 being sold in 76 retail and wholesale outlets in the country had any indication on the label that lead was present. None of the lead paint products included a warning on the label. CREPD is now working to encourage the Cameroon government to regulate lead levels in new paints.

Is lead still used in paints?

While developed countries have implemented standards to regulate the use of lead in paint, much of the new paint currently sold in most countries contains high levels of lead. OK International published one of the first studies along with our Indian partners at Toxics Link in 2008 on lead levels in paints in India that helped push the largest companies there to reformulate their residential paint products. Despite some success, recent studies examining lead concentrations in new paints in over 40 developing countries demonstrate that most of the paints tested exceed the U.S. standard of 90 ppm. The following is a list of countries where testing conducted since 2005 have found a substantial portion of new paints contain lead compounds:

  • Belarus
  • Brazil
  • China
  • Cameroon
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Lebanon
  • Malaysia
  • Mexico
  • Nigeria
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Russia
  • Senegal
  • Seychelles
  • Singapore
  • South Africa
  • Sri Lanka
  • Taiwan
  • Tanzania
  • Thailand
  • Uganda

In addition to these products being sold for application on the interior and exterior of homes, lead paint is commonly used on steel structures (e.g., bridges), vehicles and consumer products (e.g., children's toys). Even where lead concentrations in paint are regulated, there are typically exceptions for commercial or industrial use.

More than 2.5 billion people live in countries where lead paint is still sold for residential use!

New Guidance on Childhood Lead Poisoning (May 2012)

Any exposure to lead is potentially harmful for a child as there is no known “safe” level. In May 2012, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) announced it would change its policy on Childhood Lead Poisoning to eliminate the terminology “level of concern” that was previously defined as a blood lead level of 10 ug/dl and which had been widely adopted by other health agencies. This change acknowledges that all exposures to lead are potentially harmful to a child and therefore public health policy should focus on preventing exposures before they cause harm.

The CDC will now recommend follow up for the most highly exposed children with elevated blood lead levels above a reference value representing the top 2.5% of all children in the U.S. That level is currently 5 µg/dl, but this will be updated every four years based on current surveillance testing data. This is the first substantive change in the agency’s guidance on blood lead levels since 1991.

Repeated studies have demonstrated that at these levels, children's school performance and intellectual capacity are irreversibly impacted. In adults blood lead levels in this range are also associated with hypertension and are a significant contributor to heart disease and stroke. At higher exposure levels kidney disease and damage to the gastrointestinal, nervous, and reproductive systems occurs.

Approximately 450,000 children in the U.S. have blood lead levels above the reference value of 5 µg/dL, and we estimate that globally several hundred million children are suffering from higher exposures -- primarily in developing countries. As a result, these countries are experiencing significant costs for medical care and a loss in productivity and lifetime earnings.

The report from the CDC’s Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP) that drafted these recommendations can be found here.

Lead Paint Hazards

People are exposed to lead in paint from various routes. Buildings painted with lead paint either on the interior or exterior have higher concentrations of lead in the dust. Children are most susceptible to exposure as they have frequent hand-to-mouth contact and play close to the ground where paint dust collects. Homes with lead paint on the exterior often have excessive lead levels in soil found adjacent to the structure from weathering and the dust generated from previous painting projects. This lead is then tracked into the home and contributes to the dust contamination. Children may also be exposed to lead from paint on toys, furniture, playground equipment, and other products. Workers are exposed from manufacturing lead paint, products made with lead paint, and more commonly from disturbing lead paint during construction and painting activities.

Even if lead is eliminated from all new paint, millions of homes will still contain lead hazards for centuries. Dust released from friction and impact surfaces and contaminated soil will persist in the environment for years. In the U.S. where paint containing more than 600 ppm of lead was banned for residential use since 1978, approximately 185,000 children still have blood lead levels (BLL) that exceed 10 µg/dL. This is the beginning level of concern according to the U.S. Center for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines.

Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead in Paint

In order to minimize harmful human exposures, OK International is working in coordination with other non-governmental organizations, governments and industry leaders around the world on a global alliance to eliminate lead in paint. While a small number of countries have national laws and programs on lead in paint, these products remain unregulated in most countries. In addition, there is a need for international cooperation to disseminate information and to standardize labeling. Many developing countries may look to the alliance for model legislation that can help them address lead paints. See OK International's lead paint certification proposal here.

The Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead in Paints had its first meeting in Geneva, Switzerland from May 26-28, 2010. The goal of the alliance is to prevent childhood exposure to lead via paints and minimize occupational exposure to lead in paint by phasing out the manufacture and sale of paints containing lead. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Health Organization jointly serve as the secretariat of the voluntary global partnership. Among the main outcomes of the meeting were an agreed draft framework setting out the overall goal, objectives and organizational structure of the Global Alliance, and draft work plans for various areas of focus including human health, environment, outreach to industry, and legislation. The Global Alliance further agreed on the definition of “lead paint”, as any paint (to include varnish, lacquer, stain, enamel, glaze, primer or coating) with a lead concentration greater than 90 ppm (parts per million).

Substitutes for lead in paint

Substitutes for lead-based pigments have been available for over one hundred years and titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are commonly used for this purpose. In most countries where lead paint is commonly sold for residential use, competing brands that have eliminated the use of lead pigment and other lead additives are often available within the same price range.

Lead in Toys

Children often place toys and jewelry in their mouths and these items are sometimes swallowed. Products intended for children that are painted with lead based paint are a known source of lead exposure. The State of California reported that 36% of children in the state with lead poisoning had been exposed to at least one lead-containing item. From 2007 to 2009, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) issued 137 recalls on over ten million imported toys due to excessive lead content underlining the global public health threat posed by unchecked use of lead paints. See the CPSC recall list for toys and jewelry containing excessive amounts of lead.

Levels of lead in paint

Most countries do not have regulatory limitations on lead content in paint or only have voluntary standards in place. In countries with regulations, the permissible lead levels are often inconsistent with a range of excluded applications. Standards between countries vary greatly and some regulations reference soluble lead and others total lead (percent by weight). The following table summarizes some countries with national regulations limiting lead content in paint:


Table 1: Lead in Paint Regulations by Country

Country

Legislation/ Regulation and Year

Includes

Excludes

Lead Level

Brazil

11.762-2008

Housing paint/varnish, paint/varnish intended for children and schools

Paint/varnish for agricultural and industrial equipment and structures; traffic signs; automobiles, airplanes; ships; rail vehicles; graphic arts; home wares; metallic furniture; and art supplies.

600 ppm

Canada

Proposed amendment to Item 2, Schedule I of the Hazardous Product Act (HPA) -2005


Surface coating applied to furniture and other articles for children

N/A

90 ppm

Canada

Proposed amendment to Item 9 (a), Schedule I of the HPA -2005

Toys, equipment and other products for use by a child in learning or play


N/A

90 ppm

Canada

Proposed amendment to Item 18, Schedule I of the HPA -2005


Pencils and artists’ brushes

N/A

90 ppm

China

GB6675-2003

Paint for toys, school supplies children’s art material


N/A

90 ppm (soluble)

China

GB18581-2001a

Paint intended for indoor decorating of wooden ware


N/A

90 ppm (soluble)

China

GB18582-2001b

Paint intended for interior architectural coatings


N/A

90 ppm (soluble)

Mexico

NOM-015/1-SCFI/SSA-1994

Paint and ink coatings of items intended for toys and school supplies

Paint for objects that, due to size, function, and/or mass, do not pose obvious risk of contact with a child’s mouth

100 ppm (soluble)

Sri Lanka

Direction No.36 under Section 12(2)

Consumer Affairs Authority Act No. 09 of 2003

Sept. 30 2011


Toys and accessories for children

N/A

90 ppm (soluble)

(effective Jan.1, 2013)

Sri Lanka

Direction No.36 under Section 12(2)

Consumer Affairs Authority Act No. 09 of 2003

Sept. 30 2011


Emulsion paints for interior and exterior use

N/A

90 ppm

(effective Jan.1, 2013)

Sri Lanka

Direction No.36 under Section 12(2)

Consumer Affairs Authority Act No. 09 of 2003

Sept. 30 2011


Enamel paints and floor paints

N/A

600 ppm

(effective Jan.1, 2013)

U.S.A

PL 110-314 Section 101-2008

Paint for residential application

Paint for industrial and commercial use; artist’s paint; and other exemptions


90 ppm

(effective August 14, 2009)

U.S.A

PL 110-314 Section 101-2008

Paint applied to toys and consumer products designed for children age 12 and younger, furniture for consumer use.


Paint applied to appliances, fixtures, or household items

90 ppm

(effective August 14, 2009)

U.S.A

PL 110-314 Section 101-2008

Total lead content of children’s toys and products (includes non-painted components) designed for children 12 years of age or younger


Component parts not accessible to a child through normal and reasonably foreseeable use and abuse of a children’s product

100 ppm

(effective August 14, 2011)



Several studies published in scientific journals have demonstrated that alarmingly high levels of lead are common in many new paints sold in developing countries. The tables below summarize the lead levels found in new residential paints since 2006:

Table 2: Lead Levels in New Residential Paint (2009)

Country No. of Samples Average Geometric Mean Median % ≥ 90 ppm % ≥ 600 ppm
China 64 15,070 169 34 44 33
Ecuador 10 31,960 2178 13,460 70 60
Egypt 20 26,200 1338 4717 65 65
India 72 29,660 4801 9630 88 82
Indonesia 11 14,770 2642 3474 82 73
Malaysia 72 24,510 769 614 60 50
Nigeria 25 15,750 7341 5760 96 96
Peru 10 11,550 3259 5711 90 80
Seychelles 28 24,880 1167 2527 68 61
Singapore 41 6988 163 55 44 37
Thailand 18 19,410 7281 15,170 100 89
Total / Average 371 NA NA NA 74 66

Source: Clark, C.S. et al, Lead levels in new enamel household paints from Asia, Africa and South America. Environ. Res. (2009), doi:10.1016/j.envres.2009.07.002.

Table 3: Lead Levels in New Residential Paint (2006-2009)

Country No. of Samples % ≥ 600 ppm % ≥ 5,000 ppm
China1 9 56 44
China2 58 50 24
India3 17 100 82
India4 69 38 28
Malaysia5 32 72 62
Nigeria6 25 96 52
Singapore7 22 9 0
South Africa8 25 -- 83
Total / Average 257 60 47

Sources:

1 Clark CS, Rampal KG, Thuppil V, Chen CK, Clark R, Roda S. The lead content of currently available new residential paint in several Asian countries. Environ Res 2006; 102:9-12.

2 Lin GZ, Peng RF, Chen Q, Wu ZG, Du L. Lead in housing paints: an exposure still not taken seriously for children lead poisoning in China. Environ Res 2009; 109:1-5.

3 Clark CS et al., 2006.

4 Kumar A, Gottesfeld P. Lead content in household paints in India. Sci Total Environ 2008; 407:333-337.

5 Clark CS et al., 2006.

6 Adebamowo EO, Clark CS, Roda S, Agbede OA, Sridhar MKC, Adebamowo CA. Lead content of dried films of domestic paints currently sold in Nigeria. Sci Total Environ 2007; 388:116-120.

7 Clark CS et al., 2006.

8 Mathee A, Rollin H, Levin J, Naik I. Lead in paint: three decades later and still a hazard for African children?. Environ Health Perspect 2007; 115:321-322.